FRI/GILLIAN, DISPONIBLE EL 29.5.21-RELATIVE CLAUSES AND CONNECTORS

RELATIVE CLAUSES

 

Relative clauses

Whom is used for formal English

  • Whom is always used when it is preceded by quantifiers such as all ofboth offew ofmany ofseveral of, etc. For example:
    • He addressed the spectators, most of whom remained seated.
    • A tree fell on a group of tourists, several of whom were injured.
atg-quiz-relative-clauses-20200912

 

atg-quiz-who-vs-whose

 

CONNTECTORS

 

Connectors List - English Study Here

 

 

 

It’s easy to confuse although and however because they’re both used to show a contrast between ideas.

Although is used to start a dependent clause (DC).

However is used to link two independent clauses (IC) that have a full stop between them.

 

In general, though is used more frequently than although especially in spoken English. They convey the same meaning but although is thought of as a more formal choice. In spoken English, we can use though with the word “thanks” to show gratitude when rejecting an offer or when an action is no longer necessary.

 

Meaning and use

We can use different words and phrases to highlight a contrast between two parts of a sentence. Some of these words and phrases are:

althougheven thoughdespitein spite ofhowever and but.

  • Although we are the best of friends we still disagree from time to time.
  • Even though we are the best of friends we still disagree from time to time.
  • Despite being the best of friends we still disagree from time to time.
  • In spite of being the best of friends we still disagree from time to time.
  • We are the best of friends; we still disagree from time to time, however.
  • We are the best of friends but we still disagree from time to time.

Form

Although / Even though

These conjunctions are used at the beginning of a clause. They introduce a contrast between two ideas, sentences or clauses.

They have similar meanings and are used in the same way. Even though highlights the contrast more strongly than although.

  • Even though I did well at the interview I didn’t get the job.
  • Although I did well at the interview I didn’t get the job. 
  • Even though I was really angry I tried not to show it.
  • Although I was really angry I tried not to show it.

Despite / in spite of

These are prepositions and are followed by nouns or noun phrases. They can’t be followed directly by a verb phrase. If a verb is used it must be changed to the noun form (gerund).

  • Despite doing well at the interview I didn’t get the job.
  • In spite of doing well at the interview I didn’t get the job.
  •  Despite my being really angry I tried not to show it.
  • In spite of my being really angry I tried not to show it.

A verb phrase can be used with these expressions by adding the fact after the preposition.

  • Despite the fact I did well at the interview I didn’t get the job.
  • In spite of the fact I did well at the interview I didn’t get the job.
  •  Despite the fact I was really angry I tried not to show it.
  • In spite of the fact I was really angry I tried not to show it.

However

However is an adverb. It comes after the part of the sentence that is being contrasted. It can go in different parts of the clause.

  • I did well at the interview. However, I didn’t get the job.
  • I did well at the interview; I didn’t, however, get the job.
  • I did well at the interview; I didn’t get the job, however.
  • I was really angry; however, I tried not to show it.
  • I was really angry; I tried, however, not to show it.
  • I was really angry. I tried not to show it, however.

But

This is a conjunction that links two parts of a sentence together. It goes before the clause that has the contrast.

  • I did well at the interview but I didn’t get the job.
  • I was really angry but I tried not show it.

Take note: Though and although

Though is a shortened form of although. Notice though that although we say even though, we don’t say even although 

Take note: However at the beginning of a sentence

It is not a mistake to use however at the beginning of sentence. However, some people feel that is. If you want to avoid it, use a semi-colon after the first clause rather than a full-stop.

  • I did well at the interview; however, I didn’t get the job.

 

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con002
con003-connectives-linking-words
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*Answers: 1) Arguments for:

– Clean energy — no harmful chemicals or pollutants involved/produced.

– Will never run out.

– Doesn’t destroy habitats as other power generation means do.

– Essentially free/any associated costs falling.

 

2) Arguments against:

– Turbines dangerous to wildlife, especially birds.

– Noisy.

– Require large area of open land — may lead to cutting down of trees.

– Supply of wind not consistent — turbines operating at 30% capacity.

– Bad weather can damage turbines.

 

 

 

 

*Answers: 1) Advantages:

-Better for environment

– contribute less to greenhouse effect.

-Don’t use fossil fuels which are in limited supply.

-Smooth acceleration, quiet motors.

-Heavier cars may cause less accidents.

 

2) Disadvantages:

-Batteries needed to be recharged frequently.

-Weight and size of the car battery, car will be slower.

-Batteries can cause explosions.

-You can’t hear the car engine/ quiet motor

– May cause accidents/ be unsafe.

-Expensive.

 

 

 

*Answers:

1. Can’t see stars/ difficult for amateur astronomers!.

2. The circadian rhythm is disrupted by artificial light.

3. Stress and ill health in animals and possibly humans.

4. Disrupts sleep/ impairs melatonin production.

5. May increase cancer risk.

6. Plants blooming/producing fruit affected.

7. Migration/ hatching of birds affected.

8. Energy loss/ carbon dioxide production.

9. It´s too expensive for economy.

 

* Some possible solutions :

-More senses of turn lights on.

-More sensors to turn light on/off.

-Lights with lower intensity.

-Cover bulbs.

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